First trimester of pregnancy is a time of adjustment of a woman of her pregnancy. Fetal growth in the first three months this is still going slowly, so that nutritional needs are also not so big. Even in this period is arguably the nutritional needs of expectant mothers are still the same as normal adult women. However, all nutrients are consumed to meet the needs of the fetus. Specific nutritional deficiencies or consuming dangerous addictive substances can cause organ failure a perfect formation.
Born with perfect organs had not been so bail. According to Prof. hypothesis. David Barker et al. from the UK, babies with low birth body weight (less than 2.5 kg), or sub-standard body weight one year of age are at risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, hypertension in later adulthood.
Can not no, nutritional Big Shot because it virtually determines the fate of the baby in the future. In the first trimester nutritional needs that need attention are as follows:
Calories are needed to change in the pregnant woman's body, including the formation of new cells, the drainage of food from the maternal blood vessels to the fetus through the placental blood vessels and the formation of enzymes and hormones that regulate fetal growth. During the first trimester, pregnant women need to extra weight gain of 0.5 kg per week. Based on Nutrient Adequacy Score Average is recommended (National Food and Nutrition Widyakarya VI, 1998), pregnant women need an additional 285 kcal per day or equal to 2485 kcal per day. Compare with adult women (20-45 years) under normal circumstances do not pregnant who only needs 2200 kcal of energy.
To build new cells of the fetus, including blood cells, skin, hair, nails, and muscle tissue is needed protein. Protein is also needed to bring food placenta to the fetus as well as hormonal regulation of the mother and fetus. Additional protein is needed each day is 60 g or 12 g more than the adult women was pregnant. Protein can be obtained from food such as meat, cheese, fish, eggs, nuts.
Vitamins and minerals
Necessary vitamins and minerals which are important nutrients during pregnancy. Vitamin A in the optimal amount required for fetal growth. No less important vitamins B1 and B2 and niacin are needed in the process of metabolism. While vitamin B6 and B12 is useful to regulate the use of protein by the body. Vitamin C is important to help the absorption of iron during pregnancy to prevent anemia.
For the formation of bone and joint fetal needed vitamin D which helps absorption of calcium. Calcium is important for the growth of fetal bones and teeth. There is a lot of calcium in milk and other dairy and nuts.
Meanwhile, vitamin E is required for the formation of red blood cells and protects fats from damage. Folic acid and zinc is important for the growth of the central nervous system so that the consumption of food containing folic acid can reduce the risk of central nervous system abnormalities and fetal brain. Foods rich in folic acid such as citrus, bananas, broccoli, carrots, and tomatoes.
Please note, folic acid in fruits and vegetables easily damaged by the process of cooking and heating. Therefore, fruit and vegetables better consumed in fresh condition.
The supply of iron is also important because during pregnancy the mother's blood volume will increase 30%. In addition, the placenta had to drain enough iron to fetal development.
Adequacy of blood become very important, because keep in mind, when giving birth, because it would be much blood loss the mother not to have anemia.
Consumption of fiber found in many fruits and vegetables, is useful to help work the excretion system so easy defecation.
Under normal circumstances, we are encouraged to drink eight glasses of water a day. Especially for pregnant women. Water demand will need to be considered correct. Water shortage (dehydration) must be immediately addressed, because the young pregnancy occurs occasionally vomiting so much out of body fluids.
The brain develops rapidly
In the second and third trimester, when the morning sickness has passed, usually pregnant women have started to enjoy food and feel the movement of the fetus in the abdomen. In this second trimester fetal growth is also going very fast. It may be said, half of the addition of maternal body weight during pregnancy occurred in the 6th and 7th. Pregnant women who are malnourished at this gestational age, may be "transmit" the same pain on the fetus she is carrying. As a rule, pregnant women weigh less than 45 kg in the third trimester indicates chronic energy deficiency.
Nutrient requirements in the second and third trimesters is also noteworthy because it is closely related to the development of fetal intelligence. Because, at the age of gestation 15-20 weeks, fetal brain experiencing very rapid growth. Even enters the 30th week of pregnancy until the baby is 18 months old, the brain is experiencing rapid growth in the second phase.
In contrast to the nutritional needs in the first trimester, second and third trimester pregnant women need nutrients as follows:
The body needs 285 extra calories each day compared to before pregnancy. Consumption of these foods at least result in weight gain around 8-15 pounds until the end of the third trimester. Since this second trimester, attempted to add ½ kg of weight every week. In late pregnancy, the consumption of carbohydrates (50-60% of total calories) is required in sufficient quantities for preparation of the mother during childbirth.
Protein is important for the growth of the fetus and placenta, as well as to meet the needs of the red blood supply. Requirement of protein obtained from animal foods such as meat, fish, eggs, and vegetables like beans, tofu, and tempeh.
Vitamins and minerals
In the third trimester, the body needs vitamin B6 in large quantities than before pregnancy. This vitamin is needed to build proteins from amino acids, red blood, brain nerves, and muscles of the body. When the protein adequate, then the need for vitamin B6 will be fulfilled as well. Foods that contain lots of vitamin B6 include fish. Do not forget to eat the substance of omega-3 which are found mainly in meat tuna and salmon. Omega-3 also plays a role in the development of fetal brain and retina.
Zinc is required for immunological system (immunity) of the body. Consumption of zinc can also avoid the premature birth of the fetus and plays a role in fetal brain development, especially in the last trimester. Allegedly, zinc deficiency causes cleft lip. Foods rich in zinc include beef and fish.
Calcium is needed in the first trimester until the third trimester because it is an important nutrient during pregnancy. Iron needs increase, especially in the early second trimester of pregnancy. In fact, nearly 70% of pregnant women in Indonesia suffer from anemia. Therefore supplementation of iron pills strived to be given during pregnancy to meet the iron needs it.
If every pregnant woman concerned and working to fulfill a useful nutrients for the growth of the fetus in her womb, the baby would be born healthy.
Source: (Dr. Elvina Naidoo, M.Sc., Ph.D.)