certainly expecting a baby in her womb were born with perfect. But for some reason women can experience pregnancy disorder that causes babies born with congenital defects.
Alcohol and cigarettes.
Two of these items has long been medically proven to cause many disorders of pregnancy and even cause the baby to birth defects. Alcohol is teratogens or capable of causing interference on embryonic development of the fetus so the baby is born with the physical is not perfect. Alcohol-exposed fetuses at risk for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a syndrome that causes physical and brain abnormalities in infants.
In America alcohol is a major cause of birth defects to mothers aged 18-44 years who consume alcohol. Alcohol consumed by pregnant women will get into the body of the fetus through the placenta, which then damage the development of fetal organs, especially the brain, severe conditions can even cause failure of the fetus. Types of defects caused by FAS to a wide range, some of which is the size of a small baby's head, hearing loss, liver damage, impaired vision, and physical disabilities.
These symptoms can continue to grow until the baby is large with a form of delayed speech, hyperactivity, and low IQ. Not much different with alcohol, cigarettes also have the ability to damage the developing fetus. Pregnant women who smoke is also toxic to the fetus. Cigarettes can decrease oxygen supply to the fetus, so that physically interfere with brain development and infant and at great risk of birth defects such as cleft lip and heart defects. Science journal published by the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association states that smoking is associated with defects umbing lips or oral cavity defects in babies born to women smokers.
The use of several types of drugs during pregnancy can cause birth defects. For example, in pregnant women who consume the type of hypertension drug captopril. Captopril is an enzyme inhibitor that works to control blood pressure. But these drugs have a negative risk to the fetus, because it is teratogens (damage the developing fetus). In 1984 the National Institutes of Health recommend a ban on the use of these drugs during pregnancy, as through drug research is proven to cause a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the fetus. Then in subsequent years much research has shown that exposure to captopril causes birth defects such as heart defects, cleft lip, incomplete limbs, polydactyly (finger double), hypospadias (abnormal vital tool), spina bifida (spinal disorders) and late lung function.
Exposure to chemicals.
Some chemicals can cause deformed babies, mercury or mercury for example. Mercury is used by pregnant women can enter and settle in the fetus. Research shows that mercury can cause deformed babies in the womb or after birth in the form of mental retardation, dumb, blind, and seizures.
Malnutrition or poor nutrition causes many disorders of pregnancy and birth defects, especially in some poor countries. Lack of vitamin A, B, C, calcium, iodine, magnesium, folic acid, thiamine, and riboflavin proves to cause defects in babies. Each type of nutrient deficiency effects of different disabilities, but in general malnutrition cause infant heart defects, crippled legs, lips sumbuing, hidrisefalus, stunted, blindness, ear lobe curved, and mental retardation. In fact, malnutrition can also cause failure of the fetus, it is most prevalent in areas experiencing economic and food crisis.
In some genetic conditions also contribute to the cause of infant fetal defects and failures, ie single gene disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, and multifactorial. Single gene disorders are inherited defects from parents to infants, is caused by damage to the functioning of enzymes break down the amino acid phenylalanine. The form of this defect can be a central nerve damage that causes death. Abnormalities of chromosomes can cause defects in infants with various forms of mental retardation one of them. Multifactorial and can be caused by DNA mutations and exposure to hazardous substances on the fetus, for example, spinal disorders and lack the volume of the baby's brain.