Sabtu, 14 Mei 2011

Install the IUD (Intra Uterine Device) after giving birth, whether at risk?

IUD is a small tool consists of a flexible plastic material that is inserted into the uterine cavity, which must be replaced if it is used for a certain period. IUD is the way of long-term contraception. Name popularity is a spiral.



Several types of IUDs are:



Copper-T

T-shaped IUD, made of polyethelene material in which the vertical section was fine copper wire windings. This fine copper wire windings has the effect of antifertilisasi (anti-conception) is quite good. New forms of T IUD

This IUD releases lenovorgegestrel with low concentrations for at least five years. The results showed high effectiveness in preventing unintended pregnancy and menstrual bleeding.

Disadvantages of this method is the additional occurrence of side effects of hormonal and amenorhea.



Copper-7

IUD is shaped figure 7 with a view to facilitate installation. This species has a vertical shaft diameter 32 mm and added coil of copper wire (Cu) which has a surface area of ​​200 mm2, the same function as well as fine copper coil on the type of Copper-T.



Multi Load

IUDs are made of plastic (polyethelene) with two left hands and right-wing-shaped flexible. The length from tip top to bottom 3.6 cm. The trunk was given roll of copper wire with a surface area of ​​250 mm2 or 375 mm2 to increase effectiveness. There are 3 sizes of multi-load, which is standard, small (small), and mini.



Lippes Loop

IUDs are made of polyethelene, shaped like a spiral or S letter continued. To meudahkan control, mounted on the tail of yarn. Lippes Loop consists of 4 different types according to the length of the top. Type A is 25 mm (blue thread), Type B 27.5 mm 9 (black thread), type C is 30 mm (yellow thread), and 30 mm (thick, white thread) for type D. Lippes Loop has a low failure rate. Another advantage of using this type of spiral is when perforation occurs rarely cause injury or intestinal obstruction, because made of plastic material. The much used in family planning programs masional is this type of IUD.



How it Works:



  • Inhibiting the ability of sperm to enter the fallopian tubes

  • Affect ovum fertilization before reaching uterine cavity

  • IUD works primarily to prevent sperm and ovum meet, even though the IUD makes difficult sperm into the female reproductive organs and reduce the sperm for fertilization



Effectiveness

IUDs are very effective (92-94% effectiveness) and do not need to remember every day as well as pills. Multiload type can be used up to 4 years; Nova T and Copper T 200 (CUT-200) can be used 3-5 years; Cu T 380A can be for 8 years. Failure to average 0.8 pregnancies per 100 women users in the first year of use.



Indication

The principle of the installation is to place the IUD as high as possible within the uterine cavity (cavum uteri). When the installation is the best at the time of the Peranakan mouth still open and the uterus in a state tender. For example, 40 days after birth and at the end of menstruation. Who may use the IUD are:

  • Reproductive age

  • State nulliparous

  • Want to use long-term contraception

  • Women who want to use contraception breastfeeding

  • After delivery and not breastfeeding

  • After experiencing abortion and no visible infection

  • Low · Risk of STDs

  • Not want hormonal methods

  • Not like to remember take a pill every day

  • Not wanted pregnancy after 1-5 days coitus

  • Smokers

  • Fat or thin

Fitting an IUD can be performed by a physician or midwife who has been specially trained. Periodic inspection should be performed after installation of one week, then every month for the next three months. The next inspection is done every six months.



Contraindications



Which is not allowed to use the IUD is:

  • Had never given birth

  • Determine the approximate pregnant

  • Abnormalities of the inner content tools such as: abnormal bleeding from the pubic tool, bleeding in the cervix, and cervical cancer.

  • Vaginal bleeding of unknown

  • Medium genital organ infections (vaginitis, servisitis)

  • Three months is experiencing or frequently suffer from the PRP or septic abortion

  • Abnormal uterine congenital abnormalities or benign uterine tumors that can be influenced uterine cavity

  • Malignant trophoblast disease

  • Known pelvic tuberculosis

  • Cancer genital organ

  • Size uterine cavity less than 5 cm



Profit

  • According to Dr. David Grimes of Family Health International in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, as quoted by Yahoo News, doctors often forget the benefits of the IUD in the treatment of endometriosis.

  • The report disclosed in a meeting at The American College of Obstetricians and gynecologist, New Orleans. David said, the IUD can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer by 40 percent. Protection against cancer is equivalent to using oral contraceptives.

  • Very effective. 0.6 to 0.8 kehamilan/100 first women in 1 year (1 failure in 125-170 pregnancies). Long term birth control that IMPACT, at least 10 years

  • IUD can be effective immediately after installation

  • Method of long-term (10 years of protection from cut-380A and do not need to be replaced)

  • Not affect the sexual relationship. Intimate relationships become more comfortable because of security against the risk of pregnancy

  • No hormonal side effects with cut-380A

  • Not affect the quality and volume of breast milk. Safe for nursing mothers - do not interfere with the quality and quantity of breast milk

  • Able to be installed immediately after delivery or abortion (if there are no infection)

  • Able to be used until menopause

  • No no interactions with medications

  • Assist prevent ectopic pregnancy

  • After IUD removed, can be directly fertile



Loss

After installation, some women may complain of abdominal pain and bleeding a little bit (spoting). It can run for 3 months after installation. But no need to worry about really, because usually after that complaint will be lost with sendrinya. But if after 3 months of complaints is still ongoing, it is advisable to check into the doctor. At the time of installation, mothers should not be too tense, because this can also cause abdominal pain. And must be immediately to the clinic if:

  1. Delayed menstruation accompanied by signs of pregnancy: nausea, dizziness, vomiting.

  2. More bleeding (more intense) than normal menstruation.

  3. There are signs of infection, such as vaginal discharge, increased body temperature, chills, and so forth. In short, if the mother was not feeling well.

  4. Pain, for example stomach, at the time of intercourse. Medicine go quickly if you find the above symptoms.



Side Effects and Complications



Common side effects occur:

  • Changes in menstrual cycle, menstrual longer and much, bleeding between mensturasi, more pain during menstruation

  • Other complications: pain and cramps for 3 to 5 days after installation, heavy bleeding during menstruation or the possible causes include anemia, perforation of the uterus wall (extremely rare when the installation is correct)

  • Not prevent STDs including HIV / AIDS

  • Not good to use in women with an STI or a frequent change of partners

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease occurred after the woman with the IMS using the IUD, PID can lead to infertility

  • Medical procedures, including pelvic examination is needed in the installation of IUD

  • A little pain and bleeding (spotting) occurred immediately after installing the IUD. Usually disappear within 1-2 days

  • Client can not remove the IUD by himself. Trained officers who can remove

  • Perhaps the IUD out of the uterus without a known (often occurs when the IUD is installed immediately after delivery)

  • Unable to prevent the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy because the normal function of the IUD prevents pregnancy

  • Women should check the position of the IUD threads from time to time.

Installation Time

Installation of IUDs should be done at the time:

  • 2 to 4 days after delivery

  • 40 days after giving birth

  • After a miscarriage

  • Day 3 of menstruation until day 10 was calculated from the first day of menstruation



Left Users checked


  • 1 month post-installation

  • 3 months later

  • Any subsequent 6 months

  • When your period 1 week late

  • Bleeding a lot or other special complaints



Complaints IUD users

Complaints encountered in the use of IUDs is happening a little bleeding, can also be accompanied by mules which usually only lasted three days. However, if ongoing bleeding in large amounts, use of IUDs should be discontinued. Other influences on temperament menstruation occurs. For example, at the beginning of the menstrual blood that came out less numerous than usual, then suddenly the numbers become a lot for 1-2 days. Further back a bit for a few days. Another possibility that occurs is the strain of the uterus (uterine cramp), and discomfort in the lower abdomen. This is due to the contraction of the uterus as a reaction to the IUD is a foreign body in the womb. With analgesic drug delivery complaints will be resolved soon. In addition to the above, whitish and infection can also arise during the use of IUDs.



Source: http://ilmukeperawatan.wordpress.com

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