Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that grows in the breast tissue. Cancer can begin to grow in the milk glands, milk ducts, fatty tissue and connective tissue in the breast.
The cause is unknown, but there are some risk factors that cause a woman to be more likely to suffer from breast cancer.
Some of the factors that influence risk are:
- Age. About 60% of breast cancers occur in over 60 years. The greatest risk found in women aged over 75 years.
- Ever had breast cancer. After the affected breast removed, then the risk of breast cancer in a healthy increase of 0.5-1% / year.
- Family history of breast cancer. Women who are mothers, sisters or children suffering from cancer, had a three times greater risk for breast cancer.
- Genetic and hormonal factors.
- Had suffered from non-cancerous breast disease.
- Menarche (first menstruation) before age 12 years, menopause after age 55 years, first pregnancy after age 30 years or had never been pregnant.
- Use of birth control pills or estrogen replacement therapy.
- Obesity after menopause.
- The use of alcohol.
- The use of alcohol more than 1-2 cups / day can increase the risk of breast cancer.
- Chemicals. Several studies have mentioned the chemical exposure that mimic estrogen (which is contained in pesticides and other industrial products) may increase the risk of breast cancer.
- DES (diethylstilbestrol). Women who took DES to prevent miscarriage have a higher risk of breast cancer.
Symptoms and Signs
Early symptoms include a lump usually feels different from surrounding breast tissue, painless and usually have an irregular edge. In the early stages, when driven by a finger, a lump can be moved easily under the skin. In later stages, the lump usually adheres to the chest wall or skin around it. In advanced cancer, can form a swollen lump or breast skin ulcers. Sometimes the skin over the lump shrank and looked like an orange peel.
Other symptoms that may be found a lump or mass in the armpit, change size or shape of the breast, an abnormal discharge from the nipple (usually bloody or yellow to green, may also be pus), change in color or texture of the skin on the breast, nipples and areola (dark brown colored area around the nipple), breast looks red, the skin around the nipple scaly nipple interested in or feel itching, breast tenderness or swelling of one breast. At an advanced stage may develop bone pain, weight loss, swelling of arms or ulcerated skin.
Many risk factors can not be controlled. Some diet experts and oncologists believe that changes in diet and lifestyle in general can reduce the incidence of cancer. Endeavored to make early diagnosis of breast cancer easier to treat and can disembuhan if still at an early stage. Be aware, clinical breast examination and mammography as a screening procedure is 3 tools to detect cancer early.
Treatment usually begins after a thorough assessment of the condition of the patient, which is about a week or more after the biopsy. Treatment consists of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone inhibitors.
Radiation therapy is used to kill cancer cells in the removal of the tumor and the surrounding area, including the lymph nodes.
Chemotherapy (a combination of drugs to kill cells that multiply quickly or pressing breeding) and drug-hormone inhibitors (drugs that affect the hormones that promote the growth of cancer cells) are used to suppress the growth of cancer cells throughout the body.